Study Material On Organization of Intel 8085 Microprocessors For Specialist Officer IT Exam 2015

Notes On Organization of Intel 8085 Microprocessors For Specialist Officer IT Exam By Das Sir,Kolkata

The microprocessors that are available today came with a wide variety of capabilities and architectural features. All of them, regardless of their diversity, are provided with at least the following functional components, which form the central processing unit (CPU) of a classical computer.
1.    Register Section : A set of registers for temporary storage of instructions, data and address of data .


2.    Arithmetic and Logic Unit : Hardware for performing primitive arithmetic and logical operations .


3.    Interface Section : Input and output lines through which the microprocessor communicates with the outside world .


4.    Timing and Control Section : Hardware for coordinating and controlling the activities of the various sections within the microprocessor and other devices connected to the interface section .




Intel Microprocessors:
Intel 4004 is the first 4-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in 1971. After that Intel introduced its first 8-bit microprocessor 8088 in 1972.
These microprocessors could not last long as general-purpose microprocessors due to their design and performance limitations.
In 1974, Intel introduced the first general purpose 8-bit microprocessor 8080 and this is the first step of Intel towards the development of advanced microprocessor.
After 8080, Intel launched microprocessor 8085 with a few more features added to its architecture, and it is considered to be the first functionally complete microprocessor.
The main limitations of the 8-bit microprocessors were their low speed, low memory capacity, limited number of general purpose registers and a less powerful instruction set .
To overcome these limitations Intel moves from 8-bit microprocessor to 16-bit microprocessor.
In the family of 16-bit microprocessors, Intel's 8086 was the first one introduced in 1978 .
8086 microprocessor has a much powerful instruction set along with the architectural developments, which imparted substantial programming flexibility and improvement over the 8-bit microprocessor.

Microprocessor Intel 8085 :
Intel 8085 is the first popular microprocessor used by many vendors. Due to its simple architecture and organization, it is easy to understand the working principle of a microprocessor.
Register in the Intel 8085:
The programmable registers of 8085 are as follows -
·         One 8-bit accumulator A.
·         Six 8-bit general purpose register (GPR’s)
B, C, D , E , H and L.
·         The GPR’s are also accessible as three 16-bit register pairs BC, DE and HL.
·         There is a 16-bit program counter(PC), one 16-bit stack pointer(SP) and 8-bit flag register . Out of 8 bits of the flag register , only 5 bits are in use.



Apart from these programmable registers , some other registers are also available which are not accessible to the programmer . These registers include -
  • Instruction Register(IR).

  • Memory address and data buffers(MAR & MDR).

·         MAR: Memory Address Register.


·         MDR: Memory Data Register.


  • Temporary register for ALU use.
ALU of 8085 :
The 8-bit parallel ALU of 8085 is capable of performing the following operations –
Arithmetic : Addition, Subtraction, Increment, Decrement, Compare.
Logical : AND, OR, EXOR, NOT, SHIFT / ROTATE, CLEAR.

Because of limited chip area , complex operations like multiplication, division, etc are not available, in earlier processors like 8085.
The operations performed on binary 2's complement data.
The five flag bits give the status of the microprocessor after an ALU operation.
The carry (C) flag bit indicates whether there is any overflow from the MSB.
The parity (P) flag bit is set if the parity of the accumulater is even.
The Auxiliary Carry (AC) flag bit indicates overflow out of bit –3 ( lower nibble) in the same manner, as the C-flag indicates the overflow out of the bit-7.
The Zero (Z) flag bit is set if the content of the accumulator after any ALU operations is zero.
The Sign(S) flag bit is set to the condition of bit-7 of the accumulator as per the sign of the contents of the accumulator(positive or negative ).

The Interface Section:
Microprocessor chips are equipped with a number of pins for communication with the outside world. This is known as the system bus.
The interface lines of the Intel 8085 microprocessor are shown in the Figure 11.3 -


Address and Data Bus
The AD0 - AD7 lines are used as lower order 8-bit address bus and data bus , in time division multiplexed manner .
The A8 - A15 lines are used for higher order 8 bit of address bus.
There are seven memory and I/O control lines -
RD : indicates a READ operation when the signal is LOW .
WR : indicates a WRITE operation when the signal is LOW .
IO/M : indicates memory access for LOW and I/O access for HIGH .
ALE : ALE is an address latch enable signal , this signal is HIGH when address information is present in AD0-AD7 . The falling edge of ALU can be used to latch the address into an external buffer to de-multiples the address bus .
READY : READY line is used for communication with slow memory and I/O devices .


S0 and S1 : The status of the system bus is difined by the S0 and S1 lines as follows - 
S1
S0
Operation Specified
0
0
Halt
0
1
Memory or I/O WRITE
1
0
Memory or I/O READ
1
1
Instruction Fetch
There are ten lines associated with CPU and bus control-
· TRAP , RST7.5 , RST6.5 , RST5.5 and INTR are the Interrupt lines.
· INTA: Interrupt acknowledge line.
· RESET IN : This is the reset input signal to the 8085.
· RESET OUT : The 8085 generates the RESET-OUT signal in response to RESET-IN signal , which can be used as a system reset signal .
· HOLD : HOLD signal is used for DMA request.
· HLDA : HLDA signal is used for DMA grant .

Clock and Utility Lines :
X1 and X2: X1 and X2 are provided to connect a crystal or a RC network for generating the clock internal to the chip.
SID: input line for serial data communication.
SOD: output line for serial data communication.
VCC and VSSPower supply.

Instruction and data formats :
Memory used in the Intel 8085 microprocessor is organized in 8-bit, i.e., It is byte organized.
Every byte has a unique location in physical memory.
The address bus of 8085 is 16-bit wide , so the location of memory is described by one of a sequence of 16-bit binary address.
The 8085 can address up to 64k(i.e. 65,535) bytes of memory , which may consist of both RAM and ROM.
Data in 8085 is stored in the form of 8-bit binary integers-


And 8085 program instruction may be one , two or three bytes in length.
Multiple byte instructions must be stored in successive memory locations; the address of the first byes is always used as the address of the instruction.





Addressing Modes :
The 8085 has four different modes for addressing data stored in memory or in registers -
Direct: Bytes 2 and 3 of the instruction contains the exact memory address of the data item( the low-order bits of the address are in byte 2 , the high-order bits in byte 3 ).
Register: The instruction specifies the register or register pair in which the data are located.
Register Indirect: The instruction specifies a register pair which contains the memory address where the data are located .( the high-order bits of the address are in the first register of the pair and the low order bits in the second ).
Immediate: The instruction contains the data itself . This is either and 8-bit quantity or a 16-bit quantity (least significant byte first , most significant byte second ).
Unless directed by an interrupt or branch instruction the execution of instructions proceeds through consecutively increasing memory locations.
A branch instruction can specify the address of the next instruction to be executed in one of two ways -

Direct: The branch instruction contains the address of the next instruction to be executed .

Register Indirect : The branch instruction indicates a register pair which contains the address of the next instruction to be executed .

Instruction Set :
The complete instruction set of 8085 can be grouped in five different functional groups -
1.    Data Transfer group: Moves data between registers, or between memory location and registers, includes moves, loads, stores and exchanges.

2.    Arithmetic group: Adds, subtracts, increments , or decrements data in registers or memory .

3.    Logic group : AND’s , OR’s , XOR’s , compares , rotates , or complements data in registers or between memory and a register .


4.    Branch group : Initiates conditional or unconditional jumps , calls , returns , and restarts .



5.    Stack , I/O and machine control group : Includes instructions for maintaining the stack , reading from input ports , writing to output ports , setting and reading interrupt masks , and setting and clearing flags .

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