IBPS CWE PO STUDY MATERIAL QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE NUMBER SYSTEM

IMPORTANT FACTS AND FORMULAE
1.Natural Numbers : Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,..... are called natural numbers.

 2.Whole Numbers : All counting numbers together with zero form the set of wholenumbersThus,
             (i) 0 is the only whole number which is not a natural number. 
            (ii) Every natural number is a whole number.

3.Even Numbers : A number divisible by 2 is called an even number, e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc.

4.  Odd Numbers : A number not divisible by 2 is called an odd number. e.g., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, etc.

5.  Prime Numbers : A number greater than 1 is called a prime number, if it has exactly two factors, namely 1 and the number itself.
Prime numbers upto 100 are : 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43,47,  53, 59, 61, 67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97.

7.Composite Numbers : Numbers greater than 1 which are not prime, are known as composite numbers, e.g., 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12.

8.  Co-primes : Two numbers a and b are said to be co-primes, if their H.C.F. is 1. e.g., (2, 3), (4, 5), (7, 9), (8, 11), etc. are co-primes.

Test of divisibility

1.  Divisibility By 2 : A number is divisible by 2, if its unit's digit is any of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8.
Ex. 84932 is divisible by 2, while 65935 is not.

2.  Divisibility By 3 : A number is divisible by 3, if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3.
Ex.592482 is divisible by 3, since sum of its digits = (5 + 9 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 2) = 30, which is divisible by 3.
But, 864329 is not divisible by 3, since sum of its digits =(8 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 9) = 32, which is not divisible by 3.

3.  Divisibility By 4 : A number is divisible by 4, if the number formed by the last two digits is divisible by 4.
Ex. 892648 is divisible by 4, since the number formed by the last two digits is 48,  which is divisible by 4.
But, 749282 is not divisible by 4, since the number formed by the last tv/o digits is 82, which is not divisible by 4.

4.  Divisibility By 5 : A number is divisible by 5, if its unit's digit is either 0 or 5. Thus, 20820 and 50345 are divisible by 5, while 30934 and 40946 are not.

5.  Divisibility By 6 : A number is divisible by 6, if it is divisible by both 2 and 3. Ex. The number 35256 is clearly divisible by 2.
Sum of its digits = (3 + 5 + 2 + 5 + 6) = 21, which is divisible by 3. Thus, 35256 is divisible by 2 as well as 3. Hence, 35256 is divisible by 6.

6.   Divisibility By 8 : A number is divisible by 8, if the number formed by the last three digits of the given number is divisible by 8.
Ex. 953360 is divisible by 8, since the number formed by last three digits is 360, which is divisible by 8.

But, 529418 is not divisible by 8, since the number formed by last three digits is 418, which is not divisible by 8.

7.   Divisibility By 9 : A number is divisible by 9, if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9.
Ex. 60732 is divisible by 9, since sum of digits * (6 + 0 + 7 + 3 + 2) = 18, which is divisible by 9.
But, 68956 is not divisible by 9, since sum of digits = (6 + 8 + 9 + 5 + 6) = 34, which is not divisible by 9.

8.   Divisibility By 10 : A number is divisible by 10, if it ends with 0.
Ex. 96410, 10480 are divisible by 10, while 96375 is not.

9.   Divisibility By 11 : A number is divisible by 11, if the difference of the sum of its digits at odd places and the sum of its digits at even places, is either 0 or a number divisible by 11.Ex. The number 4832718 is divisible by 11, since :(sum of digits at odd places) - (sum of digits at even places)
(8 + 7 + 3 + 4) - (1 + 2 + 8) = 11, which is divisible by 11.

10.  Divisibility By 12 ; A number is divisible by 12, if it is divisible by both 4 and3.
Ex. Consider the number 34632.
(i) The number formed by last two digits is 32, which is divisible by 4, 
(ii) Sum of digits = (3 + 4 + 6 + 3 + 2) = 18, which is divisible by 3. Thus, 34632 is divisible by 4 as well as 3. Hence, 34632 is divisible by 12.

11.   Divisibility By 14 : A number is divisible by 14, if it is divisible by 2 as well as 7.

12.  Divisibility By 15 : A number is divisible by 15, if it is divisible by both 3 and 5.

13.  Divisibility By 16 : A number is divisible by 16, if the number formed by the last4  digits is divisible by 16.
Ex.7957536 is divisible by 16, since the number formed by the last four digits is 7536, which is divisible by 16.

14.  Divisibility By 24 : A given number is divisible by 24, if it is divisible by both3  and 8.

15.  Divisibility By 40 : A given number is divisible by 40, if it is divisible by both 5  and 8.

Progression 

Arithmetic Progression (A.P.) If each term of a progression differs from its preceding term by a constant, then such a progression is called an arithmetical progression. This constant difference is called the common difference of the A.P.

An A.P. with first term a and common difference d is given by a, (a + d), (a + 2d),(a + 3d),.....

The nth term of this A.P. is given by Tn =a (n - 1) d.

The sum of n terms of this A.P.
Sn = n/2 [2a + (n - 1) d] = n/2   (first term + last term).



Geometrical Progression (G.P.) : A progression of numbers in which every term bears a constant ratio with its preceding term, is called a geometrical progression.The constant ratio is called the common ratio of the G.P. A G.P. with first term a and common ratio r is :
a, ar, ar2,

In this G.P. Tn = ar^n-1
sum of the n terms, Sn=   a(1-r^n)/ (1-r)






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