IBPS Specialist Officer IT Study Material On Networking Basics



Difference between the communication and transmission. 

The differences between the communication and transmission are:
Physical movement of information and concerning about bit priority, synchronization, clock etc is referred as transmission, where as full exchange of information among media of communication is referred as communication.
Transmission is all about transmitting of data to the destination, where as the dialogue between the source and destination is all about communication. 

What is the difference between TFTP and FTP application layer protocols? 

The differences between FTP and TFTP:
FTP is connection oriented, where as TFTP is not.
TFTP uses error checking and flow control, where as TFTP does not cause error checking.
FTP uses TCP as transport protocol, where as TFTP uses UDP as transport protocol.
Authentication is mandatory in FTP, where as authentication is not needed in TFTP. 
Just getting and putting application effectively is the design concern of TFTP, where as FTP provides more control and data connection aspects. 

Difference between bit rate and baud rate. 

The differences between bit rate and baud rate:
Bit rate is measured as number of data bits transmitted / second in communication channel.
Baud rate is measured as number of times a signal state is changed in a communication channel.
One change of state can transmit one bit or less than one bit which depends on modulation technique used. The bit and baud rate have the connection:
bps = baud / second x the number of bits / per baud 

What are NETBIOS and NETBEUI? 

Network Basic Input Output System provides session layer of OSI model related services which allows the applications on different computers for communicating over a LAN. NetBIOS runs over TCP/IP through NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NBT) protocol. This process results in every computer in the network with NetBIOS name and an IP address that corresponds to a host name.
NetBIOS Extended User Interface is an extended version of NetBIOS. It is a program that allows computers to communicate within a local area network. NetBEUI forms the frame format which was not a specification of NetBIOS. NetBEUI is the best choice for performing communication within a LAN. 


Difference between ARP and RARP. 

The differences between ARP and RARP:
Address Resolution Protocol is utilized for mapping IP network address to the hardware address that uses data link protocol. 
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol is a protocol using which a physical machine in a LAN could request to find its IP address from ARP table or cache from a gateway server. 
IP address of destination to physical address conversion is done by ARP, by broadcasting in LAN.
Physical address of source to IP address conversion is done by RARP. 
ARP associates 32 bit IP address with 48 bit physical address.
Allowing a host to discover its internet address after knowing only its physical address is done by RARP. 


What is the difference between POP3 and IMAP Mail Server? 

POP3: 
All emails are to be downloaded again if used by another desktop PC for checking the email.
May leads to confusion if used for checking email in office and at home pc.
Attachments will be down loaded into desktop while the ‘check new email’ process is in progress.
Mailboxes can be created only on desktop and one mail box exists on the server.
IMAP:
There is no need for downloading all email while using another desktop PC for checking email.
Unread mail identification is easier.
Message downloading is possible only when opened for display from its contents.
Multiple mailboxes creation is possible on the desktop PC and also on the server. 


What is a Transaction server? 

A transaction server is software that is used for implementing transactions.
A transaction comprises of multiple steps that must automatically be completed. A transaction server consists of a safety providing system and environment where the programs can be written for making use of the features of guaranteed transactions. 

What is Message Oriented Middleware (MOM)? 

An infrastructure focuses on sending and receiving messages to increment interoperability, flexibility and flexibility of an application. MOM performs this by allowing an application to be distributed over platforms of different kind. MOM reduces the application development complexity which spans multiple operating systems and network protocols. This process insulates the application developer from the operating systems details and network interfaces. Various APIs across diverse platforms and networks are provided by MOM. 

What is Groupware server? 

Groupware server is software that allows the collaboration of users, irrespective of location through the internet or intranet to work together in an atmosphere which is virtual. 

What are TP-Lite and TP-Heavy Monitors? 

TP-Lite Monitor: The integration of TP monitors functions in a database engines is called as TP-Lite monitor.
TP-Heavy Monitor: A TP monitor that supports the client/server architecture and allows PC for initiating very complex multiserver transaction from the desktop. 


What is LAN?

LAN is a computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN). Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Each node (individual computer) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs, but it also is able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions. 

What's the difference Between an Intranet and the Internet?

There's one major distinction between an intranet and the Internet: The Internet is an open, public space, while an intranet is designed to be a private space. An intranet may be accessible from the Internet, but as a rule it's protected by a password and accessible only to employees or other authorized users. 
From within a company, an intranet server may respond much more quickly than a typical Web site. This is because the public Internet is at the mercy of traffic spikes, server breakdowns and other problems that may slow the network. Within a company, however, users have much more bandwidth and network hardware may be more reliable. This makes it easier to serve high-bandwidth content, such as audio and video, over an intranet.

Define the term Protocol.

Protocol is a standard way of communicating across a network. A protocol is the "language" of the network. It is a method by which two dissimilar systems can communicate. TCP is a protocol which runs over a network. 

Define File Transfer Protocol.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP), a standard Internet protocol, is the simplest way to exchange files between computers on the Internet. Like the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which transfers displayable Web pages and related files, and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), which transfers e-mail, FTP is an application protocol that uses the Internet's TCP/IP protocols. FTP is commonly used to transfer Web page files from their creator to the computer that acts as their server for everyone on the Internet. It's also commonly used to download programs and other files to your computer from other servers. 
Networking - What is FTP (File Transfer Protocol)?

What is FTP (File Transfer Protocol)?

FTP is File Transfer Protocol. It used to exchange files on the internet. To enable the data transfer FTP uses TCP/IP, FTP is most commonly used to upload and download files from the internet. FTP can be invoked from the command prompt or some graphical user interface. FTP also allows to update (delete, rename, move, and copy) files at a server. It uses a reserved port no 21.

Explain the 7 Layers of OSI.

Layer 1: Physical layer 
It represents all the electrical and physical specifications for devices.  
Layer 2: Data link layer 
It provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical layer.
Layer 3: Network layer 
The Network layer provides the functional and procedural means of transferring variable length data sequences from a source to a destination via one or more networks.
Layer 4: Transport layer 
It provides transparent transfer of data between end users.
Layer 5: Session layer 
It controls the sessions between computers. It connects, manages and terminates the connections between the local and remote application.
Layer 6: Presentation layer 
It transforms data to provide a standard interface for the Application layer.
Layer 7: Application layer 
It provides a means for the user to access information on the network through an application.

What is a network? What are the different kinds of network? Explain them

A network is a group of computers or nodes connected together. They are connected with each other by communication paths.
Types of Networks:
LAN – Local Area Network connects a group of nodes covering a small physical area. LAN’s are most commonly seen in offices, building etc. LAN’s enable higher transfer rate of data, smaller coverage of area and hence less wiring.
WAN – Wide Area Network connects a group of nodes covering a wide area. WAN typically connects and allow communication between regions or national boundaries. The most common example of WAN is internet.
VPN – Virtual Private Network connects or links nodes in some larger area by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. It is used for secure communication through the public internet. VPN alone may not support explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption.
Intranet – It is a set of networks under the control of a single administrative person. It can be considered as an internal network of an organization. If it is large, web servers are used to provide information to the users.
Extranet – It is a network that restricts itself within a single organization. It can be categorized as WAN, MAN etc. however; it cannot have a single LAN. It must have a connection (at least one) with external network. 

What are network topologies? Explain Ring, Bus and Star topology.

A network topology describes the layout of a network. It describes how different nodes and elements are connected to each other. Different types of topology:
a. Ring:-
  • All nodes connected with another in a loop.
  • Each device is connected to one or more another device on either side.
b. Bus
  • All nodes connected to a central and a common cable called as a back bone.
  • In bus topology, the server is at one end and the clients are connected at different positions across the network.
  • Easy to manage and install.
  • If the backbone fails, the entire communication fails.
c. Star
  • All nodes connected to a central hub.
  • The communication between the nodes is through the hub.
  • Relative requires more cables as compared to BUS. However if any node fails, it wont affect the entire LAN. 

Explain IP, TCP and UDP.

TCP – Transmission control Protocol is used to establish communication between nodes or networks and exchange data packets. It guarantees delivery of data packets in the order they were sent. Hence it is most commonly used in all applications that require guaranteed delivery of data. It can handle both timeouts (if packets were delayed) and retransmission (if packets were lost). The stream of data is transmitted in segments. The segment header is 32 bit. it is a connectionless communication protocol at the third level (network) of the OSI model.
IP – Internet protocol is used for transmission of data over the internet. IP uses IP addresses to identity each machine uniquely. Message is sent using small packets. The packet contains both the sender and receivers address. IP does not guarantee the delivery in the same order as sent. This is because the packets are sent via different routes. It is a connectionless communication protocol at the third level (network) of the OSI model.
UDP – User Data Protocol is a communication protocol. It is normally used as an alternative for TCP/IP. However there are a number of differences between them. UDP does not divide data into packets. Also, UDP does not send data packets in sequence. Hence, the application program must ensure the sequencing. UDP uses port numbers to distinguish user requests. It also has a checksum capability to verify the data. 

What is multicasting?

Multicasting allows a single message to be sent to a group of recipients. Emailing, teleconferencing, are examples of multicasting. It uses the network infrastructure and standards to send messages.

Explain the functionality of PING.

Ping Is particularly used to check if the system is in network or not. It also gives packet lost information. In windows ping command is written as ping ip_address. The output returns the data packets information. The number of packets sent, received and lost is returned by PING.

Explain the core naming mechanism, Domain Name System (DNS).

A Domain Name system is used to convert the names of the website on the internet to IP addresses. The domain names for each IP addresses are stored in a database that is distributed across different servers. A domain name space consists of a tree of domain names. The tree has zones. Zones consist of a collection of connected nodes. These nodes are served by a name server. A domain name is usually in the form of mydomain.com. Here, .com is the top level domain. Where as mydomain is the sub domain or subdivision. A host name is a domain name that has one or more IP addresses associated with it.

What is Application layer?

The application layer is located at the top of the TCP/IP protocol layers. This one contains the network applications which make it possible to communicate using the lower layers. The software in this layer therefore communicates using one of the two protocols of the layer below (the transport layer), i.e. TCP or UDP. In computer networking, an application layer firewall is a firewall operating at the application layer of a protocol stack.[1] Generally it is a host using various forms of proxy servers to proxy traffic instead of routing it. As it works on the application layer, it may inspect the contents of the traffic, blocking what the firewall administrator views as inappropriate content, such as certain websites, viruses, and attempts to exploit known logical flaws in client software, and so forth. An application layer firewall does not route traffic on the network layer. All traffic stops at the firewall which may initiate its own connections if the traffic satisfies the rules.

Define DNS

The DNS translates Internet domain and host names to IP addresses. DNS automatically converts the names we type in our Web browser address bar to the IP addresses of Web servers hosting those sites. DNS implements a distributed database to store this name and address information for all public hosts on the Internet. 

Define Telnet

Telnet is the main Internet protocol for creating a connection to a remote server. 

Define SMTP.

SMTP - Short for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, a protocol for sending e-mail messages between servers.   

What Is a MAC Address?

MAC (Media Access Control) addresses are globally unique addressed that are written into hardware at the time of manufacture. The MAC address is a unique value associated with a network adapter. MAC addresses are also known as hardware addresses or physical addresses. They uniquely identify an adapter on a LAN. MAC addresses are 12-digit hexadecimal numbers (48 bits in length).

MAC vs. IP Addressing

Whereas MAC addressing works at the data link layer, IP addressing functions at the network layer (layer 3). It's a slight oversimplification, but one can think of IP addressing as supporting the software implementation and MAC addresses as supporting the hardware implementation of the network stack. The MAC address generally remains fixed and follows the network device, but the IP address changes as the network device moves from one network to another. 

Define Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)

Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) as defined in the IEEE 802.1D is a link management protocol that provides path redundancy while preventing undesirable loops in the network. For an Ethernet network to function properly, only one active path can exist between two stations. Loops occur in networks for a variety of reasons. The most common reason you find loops in networks is the result of a deliberate attempt to provide redundancy - in case one link or switch fails, another link or switch can take over. 

What is VPN?

A VPN is a service that offers secure, reliable connectivity over a shared public network infrastructure such as the Internet. VPNs maintain the same security and management policies as a private network. They are the most cost effective method of establishing a virtual point-to-point connection between remote users and an enterprise customer's network. 
VPN

What is VPN?

Virtual Private network is a network that used the public telecommunication infrastructure. This means that it used public wires to connect the nodes. E.g. Internet. VPN supports remote access to computers and allow data to be transmitted over this public network. Even though the data is transmitted over a public network, encryption and decrypting data to ensure security.

How would you define IP address?

IP address or Internet Protocol address is the address of a device attached to an IP network (TCP/IP network). It is a must for every client, server and network device to have a unique IP address for each network connection (network interface). Every IP packet contains a source IP address and a destination IP address. As a device moves from one network to another, its IP address changes. 
Networking - How would you define IP address? - Jan 28, 2009 at 22:10 PM by Rajmeet Ghai
Computers using the TCP/IP for communication are uniquely identified by a 32 bit address called as an IP address. The routers use the IP address information to forward the packet to the destination computer.
IP addresses are categorized as:
Private address: these IP addresses are used exclusively within a private network and not for public to see.
Public Address: these are registered IP addresses used for public.
Each IP address has a network address and a host address. IP addresses are expressed in four sets of three numbers, separated with dots. Each set is called as an octet because when converted to binary; it denotes eight binary.

Difference between Static and Dynamic IP.

Static IP is also called as permanent address assigned to each device in a network, whereas Dynamic IP, a temporary address assigned to the device via DHCP software. IP address assigned to your service by your cable or DSL Internet provider is typically dynamic IP. In routers and operating systems, the default configuration for clients is dynamic IP 

What is the difference between public and private IP?

A public IP address allows equipment accessible to everyone on the internet. A private IP address is for private use within the network and allows many more PCs to be connected. If you are using a private IP and wants VOIP, you need to change to a public IP address. 

What is Network Address Translation?

Network Address Translation acts as an agent between the Internet and a local network. It is a dynamic method which is used to minimize Internet connectivity needs. Network address translation describes the rewriting of the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses of data packets so that multiple transmissions require only one IP address. 

Define IP multicast.

IP multicast technology reduces traffic by sending stream of information to many recipients at one go. Video conferencing, stock quotas are the examples based on IP multicast. 

What is subneting?

Subnet adds one level to the way IP address is represented. It logically organizes the network. For instance, it can logically group computers belongs to the finance department. 

Define Address Resolution Protocol.

Address Resolution Protocol ARP, is responsible for mapping an IP address to its corresponding physical network address. It is mostly seen on Ethernet network.

Explain Maximum Transfer Unit, MTU.

MTU specifies the largest amount of data that can be transferred across a network.

What is Routing Protocol?

Routing protocol is the way to send routing information between any routers in an autonomous system. 
Routing - Jan 28, 2009, 17:00 pm by Rajmeet Ghai
When a source sends a packet to a destination, this packet has a specific path or route it follows. Different routing protocols are used to find the shortest path to the destination. The protocols maintain routing tables. Routing tables consist of a set of rules used to determine where these packets will travel. When a packet is received, a network device examines the packet and matches it to the routing table entry providing the best match for its destination. The packet keeps hopping until it reaches its destination.

Explain the structure and use of internet addresses.

Each IP address is 32 bit long. In human language the IP addresses are written in dotted decimal notation. These are then converted to binary by the computer. Each IP address has two parts: Network identifier or a network ID and host ID. The current internet protocol standard is IPV4. The IP addresses are divided into three classes: a class A network, a class B network, and a class C network. Class A being the largest. The four digit numbers in an IPV4 address, each network of class A will have different first number, and then its network will be addressed by the rest of the three numbers, or three bytes. The IP addresses identify a machine to deliver packets and load web pages. 

Explain how names are translated (resolved) into IP address.

Domain Name server or DNS is used to resolve names into IP addresses. When a web address is entered into the browser, the DNS client sends a request to the DNS server to find the corresponding IP address for the name. The DNS server receives this request and searches for the corresponding IP address in the database. If at this point the resolution fails, this server sends this request to the parent server. The request keeps going up the hierarchy to the parent servers or the closest authoritative of the DNS server to resolve the address. If the request times out an error is retuned to the client. If the server is able to resolve the name requested, it passes the information back to the client. The next request sent by the client is to request for a web page for the IP address. 

Describe the basics of internet routing.

When a source sends a packet to a destination, this packet has a specific path or route it follows. Different routing protocols are used to find the shortest path to the destination. The protocols maintain routing tables. Routing tables consist of a set of rules used to determine where these packets will travel. When a packet is received, a network device examines the packet and matches it to the routing table entry providing the best match for its destination. The packet keeps hopping until it reaches its destination.

Define broadcast domain.

It is a logical area in a computer network where any computer connected to the network can directly transmit to any other computer in the domain without having to go through a routing device.  

Bridge vs switch

A bridge connects two different LAN networks. A switch is something like you can connect many computers to a switch and then one computer can connect to another through the switch. Switch is a unicast one to one connection. 

Define gateway

A gateway is a network point that provides entrance into another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes. The computers that control traffic within your company's network or at your local Internet service provider (ISP) are gateway nodes. 

What is firewall?

A firewall is a hardware or software installed to provide security to the private networks connected to the internet. They can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. All data entering or leaving the Intranet passes through the firewall which allows only the data meeting the administrators’ rules to pass through it. 

What are the types of firewalls?

Packet Filtering Firewall:
This type of Firewall detects packets and block unnecessary packets and makes network traffic release.
Screening Router Firewalls:
It's a software base firewall available in Router provides only light filtering.
Computer-based Firewall:
It's a firewall stored in server with an existing Operating System like Windows and UNIX.
Hardware base Firewall:
Its device like box allows strong security from public network. Mostly used by big networks.
Proxy Server:
Proxy server allows all clients to access Internet with different access limits. Proxy server has its own firewall which filters the all packet from web server. 

What is Data encryption?

Data encryption ensures data safety and very important for confidential or critical data. It protect data from being read, altered or forged while transmission.

What is the Public Key Encryption?

Public key encryption use public and private key for encryption and decryption. In this mechanism, public key is used to encrypt messages and only the corresponding private key can be used to decrypt them. To encrypt a message, a sender has to know recipient’s public key. 

Define Digital Signatures.

Digital signature is an attachment to an electronic message used for security purpose. It is used to verify the authenticity of the sender. 

What is Ethernet technology?

Ethernet technology is a high speed broadcast bus technology. In this type, all the station shares a single ether channel and receives every single transmitted signal. 

Explain the use of network interface card, NIC.

NIC is used to connect computer to an Ethernet network.

Explain token ring technology.

In this technology, all the devices are arranged in a circle. A token moves around the circular network. A device waits for the token before it sends its frame. Once it receives token, it initiates transmission of its frame. 

What is CSMA and CD concept?

In CSDA (carrier sense multiple access), presence of any digital signal in a network is checked before transmission. Data transmission occurs only when no signal is sensed.
CD, Collision detection is responsible for monitoring carrier in order to avoid signal jam.

What is NetBIOS protocol?

NetBIOS (Network Basic Input/Output System) Protocol allows applications on separate computers to communicate over a LAN. It runs over TCP/IP giving each computer in the network a NetBIOS name and IP address. E.g. It can be used for computers running Windows 2000 (or before) to join a computer network running Windows 2000 (or later). 




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